What is spoofing and how can you prevent it?
Spoofing is a type of cyber crime where a person impersonates a brand or contact that you trust in order to gain critical personal information. Attacks using spoofing steal your contacts’ identities, imitate well-known companies, or use legitimate internet addresses as cover.
When a cyber criminal uses spoofing, they pose as a person, company, or other entity and carry out harmful deeds.
Movies like The Sting, Catch Me If You Can, and The Good Liar have all been viewed by us. These all include individuals who steal identities for various factors. Cyber crime-themed films like Snowden, Sneakers, and the legendary War Games all have situations where humans and machines impersonate one another for various reasons. What should we learn from this? A well-known action, spoofing is a form of cyber-attack that frequently results in a much bigger hack.
Spoofing is a technique used by hackers and attackers of all stripes to pretend to be other people, organizations, or even computers in order to mislead victims into disclosing personal information. Spoofing can involve more technical methods like IP spoofing, Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) spoofing, or DNS servers, or it can involve emails, phone calls, and websites. Spoofing is frequently employed in cyber-attacks to hide the origin of attack traffic.
How Spoofing Works?
Spoofing is when online thieves impersonate another person or source of information via trickery. That person is capable of manipulating modern technology, including email services and communications or the Internet’s core protocols.
Why do they act this way? It’s easy: Attackers choose their targets with the intention of making money.
Typically, spoofing involves a pretext of some kind, followed by an action statement.
The attacker creates a plausible story or theory as their initial, believable allegation or falsehood. This deception occasionally involves a demand from a higher authority. Other times, the con artist warns the victim or device that time is running out and they need to take action immediately. The pretext’s important characteristics are plausibility and comfort ability for the victim. The attacker is likely to fail if the pretext is too absurd, too general, or simply irrelevant.
The action statement instructs the victim on what to do, such as click a link or fill out a form. The action request or ask frequently seems to be very innocent. After all, we all frequently click on links. Sometimes the call to action is more adamant, such as when asked for a credit card number, bank account information, or social security number to make things right. The victim must be able to do the action stated in the action statement. Usually, the target of the social engineering attack will ignore the request if it is impossible.
Types of Spoofing
Attackers can fake communications in a variety of ways. Spoofing techniques that are frequently used include GPS, website, IP address, face, DNS, and ARP spoofing, as well as phone/caller ID spoofing.
|Type of Spoof||Description|
|Phone/Caller ID||An attacker forges caller ID information received over a voice network using a phone app or a piece of hardware. The telephone network has no way of verifying that the spoofed phone number has been fabricated before forwarding it to the unwitting user.|
|GPS||The use of an app or hardware to trick a device’s GPS into reporting that it is in a different location than it is.|
|Website||An attacker builds a comprehensive malicious website, complete with plausible landing pages. Password reset instructions and even digital certifications are frequently included on the website to deceive consumers into thinking it is a trustworthy source.|
|Facial||The subversion of facial recognition authentication systems, such as those found on an Android or iPhone. Attackers have employed masks or computer screens with images or videos of the person they want to impersonate in some circumstances. People, as well as authentication systems, are increasingly being duped by “deep fake” videos.|
|IP address||Authentication and encryption are not integrated into the standard IPv4 protocol. As a result, it is simple to generate bogus IP addresses. Because few organizations completely implement the IPv6 protocol, it is also possible to counterfeit IPv6 addresses.|
|Domain Name System (DNS)||The DNS system’s purpose is to map user-friendly names (for example, future4tech.com) to IP addresses. Attackers can use DNS spoofing to submit fake data to a DNS server and poison the database. As a result, an end user may believe they are visiting www.future4tech.com, but they are actually directed to a phoney website constructed by a hacker.|
|Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)||While individuals interact using DNS names, computers use Media Access Control (MAC) and IP addresses. ARP converts MAC addresses into IPv4 or IPv6 addresses. ARP, like IPv4, has any encryption or authentication method, allowing hackers to impersonate MAC addresses. This can lead to a variety of human and machine deceptions.|
Let’s take a closer look at a number of these spoofing techniques.
We’ve all gotten emails purportedly from a friend or an authoritative figure urging us to do something at some point. Most of the time, we can tell when someone is attempting to deceive (or phish) us. However, those emails can be rather convincing at times.
Pokémon Go Spoofing
Pokémon Go spoofing is a common example of GPS spoofing. The Pokémon Go game is all about accumulating points by physically visiting specific locations. However, using GPS spoofing, people can cheat by convincing the Pokémon Go app that they have visited places they haven’t, resulting in incorrectly accumulated points.
While Pokémon Go spoofing is a minor issue, GPS spoofing is a much more serious problem when it comes to tracking apps issued by governments.
Many governments, for example, have proposed using tracking applications to help contain pandemics (e.g., COVID-19) and otherwise manage populations. Regardless of the motivation for contact tracing, the fact that it is currently possible to fool a GPS device or an application that uses a GPS device is an issue that both IT professionals and government policymakers must be aware of.
To create convincing websites, applications such as the Social Engineering Toolkit (SET), shown below, are available. These websites frequently have ostensibly legitimate names that are often convincing variations of legitimate sites.
An attacker, for example, may send a text or email instructing the victim to reset a password at www.future4technew.com rather than the legitimate website www.future4tech.com.
Encryption certificates can even be obtained for spoofed websites. This can help a distracted user believe the ruse even more.
IP Address Spoofing
Any component of a conventional IP address can be easily created or impersonated. As a result, it is possible for attackers to avoid detection and dupe individuals or machines into divulging information or carrying out attacks without their knowledge.
How to Identify and Protect Against Spoofing Attacks
Spoofers mostly hack organizations by duping personnel. Fortunately, most firms have active cyber security programmer in place to prevent such incidents.
The IT industry has developed numerous solutions to counteract malware and spoofing, and new ones are always being developed. The IPv6 specification, for example, offers robust authentication and encryption techniques.
The IT industry continues to embrace two-factor authentication (2FA), which combines biometric data (e.g., facial recognition, fingerprints) with passwords or a physical token. The usage of two-factor authentication (2FA) can help decrease facial recognition system hacks as well as phishing.
The best method to avoid phishing and caller ID spoofing is to educate yourself on how to spot bogus emails and websites, as well as how to respond to unsolicited offers and requests. This is why smart organizations do end-user training campaigns on a regular basis.
Advanced intrusion detection apps and security information and event management (SIEM) systems are available to IT professionals. IT professionals frequently utilize IP tracking services such as IP Tracker, IP2Location, and InfoSniper to track packets.
However, the most effective technique for IT professionals to avoid spoofing is to thoroughly understand the underlying network protocols and best practices required to run a network. This implies you should learn about the TCP/IP protocol family, which includes the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), Internet Protocol (IP), User Data gram Protocol (UDP), and many more.